China Breezes

Full texts of Chinese laws, regulations, circulars, and administrative rules

Name:
Location: Shanghai, China

.

Site Feed

Sunday, December 10, 2006

Contract Law of the People's Republic of China

HOME PAGE

CHINA LEGAL BULLETIN'S ONLINE AMAZON.COM CHINA MINI- BOOKSTORE Books and periodicals on Chinese law, import/export, sourcing from China, and foreign direct investment in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong.

Adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999

Chapter I General Provisions

Chapter 1 General Provisions
Article 1
This Law is formulated with a view to protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties to contracts, maintaining the social economic order and promoting the progress of the socialist modernization drive.

Article 2
A contract in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations.Agreements involving personal status relationship such as on matrimony, adoption, guardianship, etc. Shall apply the provisions of other Laws.

Article 3 The parties to contract shall have equal legal status. No party may impose its will on the other party.

Article 4 The parties shall have the rights to be voluntary to enter into a contract in accordance with the law. No unit or individual may illegally interfere.

Article 5 The parties shall abide by the principle of fairness in defining the rights and obligations of each party.

Article 6 The parties must act in accordance with the principle of good faith, no matter in exercising rights or in performing obligations.

Article 7 In concluding and performing a contract, the parties shall abide by the laws and administrative regulations, observe social ethics. Neither party may disrupt the social-economic order or damage the public interests.

Article 8 As soon as a contract is established in accordance with the law, it shall be legally binding on the parties. The parties shall perform their respective obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract. Neither party may unilaterally modify or rescind the contract.

The contract established according to law shall be under the protection of law.

Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contracts

Article 9 In concluding a contract, the parties shall have

appropriate civil capacity of right and civil capacity of conduct.

The parties may conclude a contract through an agent in accordance

with the law.

Article 10 The parties may conclude a contract in written, oral or

other forms.

Where the laws or administrative regulations require a contract to

be concluded in written form, the contract shall be in written form.

If the parties agree to do so, the contract shall be concluded in

written form.

Article 11 The written forms mean the forms which can show the

described contents visibly, such as a written contractual agreement,

letters, and data-telex (including telegram, telex, fax, EDI and

e-mails).

Article 12 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall contain the following clauses in general:

(1) title or name and domicile of the parties;

(2) contract object;

(3) quantity;

(4) quality;

(5) price or remuneration;

(6) time limit, place and method of performance;

(7) liability for breach of contract; and

(8) methods to settle disputes.

The parties may conclude a contract by reference to the model text of each kind of contract.

Article 13 The parties shall conclude a contract in the form of an

offer and acceptance.

Article 14 An offer is a proposal hoping to enter into a contract

with other parties. The proposal shall comply with the following

stipulations:

(1) Its contents shall be detailed and definite;

(2) It indicates the proposal of the offeror to be bound in case of

acceptance.

Article 15 An invitation for offer is a proposal for requesting

other parties to make offers to the principal. Price forms mailed,

public notices of auction and tender, prospectuses and commercial

advertisements, etc. Are invitations for offer.

Where the contents of a commercial advertisement comply with the

terms of the offer, it may be regarded as an offer.

Article 16 An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.

If a contract is concluded by means of data-telex, and recipient

appoints a specific system to receive the data-telex, the time when

the data-telex enters the system shall be the time of arrival; if no

specific system is appointed, the time when the data-telex first

enters any of the recipient's systems shall be regarded as the time

of arrival.

Article 17 An offer may be withdrawn, if the withdrawal notice

reaches the offeree before or at the same time when the offer

arrives.

Article 18 An offer may be revoked, if the revocation reaches the

offeree before it has dispatched an acceptance.

Article 19 An offer may not be revoked, if

(1) the offeror indicates a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise

explicitly states that the offer is irrevocable; or

(2) he offeree has reasons to rely on the offer as being irrevocable

and has made preparation for performing the contract.

Article 20 An offer shall be null and void under any of the

following circumstances:

(1) The notice of rejection reaches the offeror;

(2) The offeror revokes its offer in accordance with the law;

(3) The offeree fails to make an acceptance at the time when the

time limit for acceptance expires;

(4) The offeree substantially alters the contents of the offer.

Article 21 An acceptance is a statement made by the offeree

indicating assent to an offer.

Article 22 Except that it is based on transaction practices or that

the offer indicates an acceptance may be made by performing an act,

the acceptance shall be made by means of notice.

Article 23 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time

limit fixed in the offer.

Where no time is fixed in the offer, the acceptance shall arrive in

accordance with the following provisions:

(1) If the offer is made in dialogues, the acceptance shall be made

immediately except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties;

(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialogue, the

acceptance shall arrive within a reasonable period of time.

Article 24 Where the offer is made in a letter or a telegram, the

time limit for acceptance commences from the date shown in the

letter or from the moment the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If

no such date is shown in the letter, it commences from the date

shown on the envelope. Where an offer is made by means of

instantaneous communication, such as telephone or facsimile, the

time limit for acceptance commences from the moment that the offer

reaches the offeree.

Article 25 A contract is established when the acceptance becomes

effective.

Article 26 An acceptance becomes effective when its notice reaches

the offeror. If an acceptance needn't be notified, it becomes

effective when an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with

transaction practices or as required in the offer.

Where a contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the time

when an acceptance arrives shall apply the provisions of Paragraph

2, Article 16 of this law.

Article 27 An acceptance may be withdrawn, but a notice of

withdrawal shall reach the offeror before the notice of acceptance

reaches the offeror or at the same time when the acceptance reaches

the offeror.

Article 28 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time

limit for acceptance, the acceptance shall be a new offer except

that the offeror informs the offeree of the effectiveness of the

said acceptance promptly.

Article 29 If the offeree dispatches the acceptance within the time

limit for acceptance which can reach the offeror in due time under

normal circumstances, but the acceptance reaches the offeror beyond

the time limit because of other reasons, the acceptance shall be

effective, except that, the offeror informs the offeree promptly

that it does not accept the acceptance because it exceeds the time

limit for acceptance.

Article 30 The contents of an acceptance shall comply with those of

the offer. If the offeree substantially modifies the contents of the

offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to

the contract object, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time

or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of

contract and the settlement of disputes, etc., shall constitute the

substantial modification of an offer.

Article 31 If the acceptance does not substantially modifies the

contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of

the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as

rejected promptly by the offeror or indicted in the offer that an

acceptance may not modify the offer at all.

Article 32 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form,

the contract is established when both parties sign or affix a seal

on it.

Article 33 Where the parties conclude the contract in the form of a

letter or data-telex, etc., one party may request to sign a letter

of confirmation before the conclusion of the contract. The contract

shall be established at the time when the letter of confirmation is

signed.

Article 34 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the

place of the establishment of the contract.

If the contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the main

business place of the recipient shall be the place of establishment.

If no main business place, its habitual residence shall be

considered to be the place of establishment. Where the parties agree

otherwise, the place of establishment shall be subject to that

agreement.

Article 35 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form,

the place where both parties sign or affix a seal shall be the place

where the contract is established.

Article 36 A contract, which shall be concluded in written form as

provided for by the laws and administrative regulations or as agreed

upon by the parties, shall be established, as the parties do not use

the written form, but one party has performed the principal

obligation and the other party has received it.

Article 37 A contract, which is concluded in written form, shall be

established, if one party has performed its principal obligation and

the other party has received it before signature or affixing with a

seal.

Article 38 In case the State issues a mandatory plan or a State

purchasing order task based on necessity, the relevant legal persons

or other organizations shall conclude contracts between them in

accordance with the rights and obligations as stipulated by the

relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Article 39 Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a

contract, the party which supplies the standard terms shall define

the rights and obligations between the parties abiding by the

principle of fairness, request the other party to note the exclusion

or restriction of its liabilities in reasonable ways, and explain

the standard terms according to the requirement of the other party.

Standard terms are clauses which are prepared in advance for general

and repeated use by one party and which are not negotiated with the

other party in concluding a contract.

Article 40 When standard terms are under the circumstances

stipulated in Article 52 and Article 53 of this Law, or the party

which supplies the standard terms exempts itself from its

liabilities, weights the liabilities of the other party, and

excludes the rights of the other party, the terms shall be null and

void.

Article 41 If a dispute over the understanding of the standard terms

occurs, it shall be interpreted according to general understanding.

Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an

interpretation unfavourable to the party supplying the standard

terms shall be preferred. Where the standard terms are inconsistent

with non-standard terms, the latter shall be adopted.

Article 42 The party shall be liable for damages if it is under one

of the following circumstances in concluding a contract and thus

causing losses to the other party:

(1) disguising and pretending to conclude a contract, and

negotiating in bad faith;

(2) concealing deliberately the important facts relating to the

conclusion of the contract or providing deliberately false

information;

(3) performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.

Article 43 A business secret the parties learn in concluding a

contract shall not be disclosed or unfairly used, not matter the

contract is established or not. The party who causes the other party

to suffer from losses due to disclosing or unfairly using the

business secret shall be liable for damages.

Chapter 3 Effectiveness of Contracts

Article 44 The contract established according to law becomes

effective when it is established.

With regard to contracts which are subject to approval or

registration as provide for by the laws or administrative

regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.

Article 45 The parties may agree on some collateral conditions

relating to the effectiveness of a contract. The contract with

entry-into-force conditions shall be effective when such conditions

are accomplished. The contract with dissolving conditions shall be

null and void when such conditions are accomplished.

To unfairly prevent the conditions from being accomplished by one

party for its own interests shall be regarded as those conditions

have been accomplished. To unfairly promoting the accomplishment of

such conditions by one party shall be regarded as

non-accomplishment.

Article 46 The parties may agree on a conditional time period as to

the effectiveness of the contract. A contract subject to an

effective time period shall come into force when the period expires.

A contract with termination time period shall become invalid when

the period expires.

Article 47 A contract concluded by a person with limited civil

capacity of conduct shall be effective after being ratified

afterwards by the person's statutory agent, but a pure profit-making

contract or a contract concluded which is appropriate to the

person's age, intelligence or mental health conditions need not be

ratified by the person's statutory agent.

The counterpart may urge the statutory agent to ratify the contract

within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification

that the statutory agent does not make any expression. A bona fide

counterpart has the right withdraw it before the contract is

ratified. The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.

Article 48 A contract concluded by an actor who has no power of

agency, who oversteps the power of agency, or whose power of agency

has expired and yet concludes it on behalf of the principal, shall

have no legally binding force on the principal without ratification

by the principal, and the actor shall be held liable.

The counterpart may urge the principal to ratify it within one

month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the

principal does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has

the right withdraw it before the contract is ratified. The

withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.

Article 49 If an actor has no power of agency, oversteps the power

of agency, or the power of agency has expired and yet concludes a

contract in the principal's name, and the counterpart has reasons to

trust that the actor has the power of agency, the act of agency

shall be effective.

Article 50 Where a statutory representative or a responsible person of a legal person or other organization oversteps his/her power and concludes a contract, the representative act shall be effective except that the counterpart knows or ought to know that he/she is overstepping his/her powers.

Article 51 Where a person having no right to disposal of property disposes of other persons' properties, and the principal ratifies the act afterwards or the person without power of disposal has obtained the power after concluding a contract, the contract shall be valid.

Article 52 A contract shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:

(1) A contract is concluded through the use of fraud or coercion by one party to damage the interests of the State;

(2) Malicious collusion is conducted to damage the interests of the State. A collective or a third party;

(3) An illegitimate purpose is concealed under the guise of legitimate acts;

(4) Damaging the public interests;

(5) Violating the compulsory provisions of the laws and administrative regulations.

Article 53 The following immunity clauses in a contract shall be

null and void:

(1) those that cause personal injury to the other party;

(2) those that cause property damages to the other party as a result

of deliberate intent or gross fault.

Article 54 A party shall have the right to request the people's

court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke the

following contracts:

(1) those concluded as a result of serious misunderstanding;

(2) those that are obviously unfair at the time when concluding the

contract.

If a contract is concluded by one party against the other party's

true intentions through the use of fraud, coercion or exploitation

of the other party's unfavorable position. The injured party shall

have the right to request the people's court or an arbitration

institution to modify or revoke it.

Where a party requests for modification, the people's court or the

arbitration institution may not revoke the contract.

Article 55 The right to revoke a contract shall extinguish under any

of the following circumstances:

(1) A party having the right to revoke the contract fails to

exercise the right within one year from the day that it knows or

ought to know the revoking causes;

(2) A party having the right to revoke the contract explicitly

expresses or conducts an act to waive the right after it know the

revoking causes.

Article 56 A contract that is null and void or revoked shall have no

legally binding force ever from the very beginning. If part of a

contract is null and void without affecting the validity of the

other parts, the other parts shall still be valid.

Article 57 If a contract is null and void, revoked or terminated, it

shall not affect the validity of the dispute settlement clause which

is independently existing in the contract.

Article 58 The property acquired as a result of a contract shall be

returned after the contract is confirmed to be null and void or has

been revoked. Where the property can not be returned or the return

is unnecessary, it shall be reimbursed at its estimated price. The

party at fault shall compensate the other party for losses incurred

as a result therefrom. If both parties are at fault, each party

shall respectively be liable.

Article 59 If the parties have maliciously conducted collusion to

damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party,

the property thus acquired shall be turned over to the State or

returned to the collective or the third party.

Chapter 4 Performance of Contracts

Article 60 The parties shall perform their obligations thoroughly

according to the terms of the contract.

The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith and perform

the obligations of notice, assistance and maintaining

confidentiality, etc. Based on the character and purpose of the

contract or the transaction practices.

Article 61 Where, after the contract becomes effective, there is no

agreement in the contract between the parties on the terms regarding

quality, price or remuneration and place of performance, etc. Or

such agreement is unclear, the parties may agree upon supplementary

terms through consultation. In case of a failure in doing so, the

terms shall be determined from the context of relevant clauses of

the contract or by transaction practices.

Article 62 If the relevant terms of a contract are unclear, nor can

it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this

Law, the provisions below shall be applied:

(1) If quality requirements are unclear, the State standards or

trade standards shall be applied; if there are no State standards or

trade standards, generally held standards or specific standards in

conformity with the purpose of the contract shall be applied.

(2) If the price or remuneration is unclear, the market price of the

place of performance at the time concluding the contract shall be

applied; if the government-fixed price or government-directed price

shall be followed in accordance with the law, the provisions of the

law shall be applied.

(3) If the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is

currency, the performance shall be effected at the place of location

of the party receiving the payment; if real estate is to be

delivered, the performance shall be effected at the place of

location of the real estate; in case of other contract objects, the

performance shall be effected at the place of location of the party

fulfilling the obligations.

(4) If the time limit for performance is unclear, the obligor may at

any time fulfill the obligations towards the obligee; the obligee

may also demand at any time that the obligor performs the

obligations, but a time period for necessary preparation shall be

given to the obligor.

(5) If the method of performance is unclear, the method which is

advantageous to realize the purpose of the contract shall be

adopted.

(6) if the burden of the expenses of performance is unclear the cost shall be assumed by the obligor.

Article 63 In cases where the government-fixed price or government-directed price is followed in a contract, if the said price is readjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the contract, the payment shall be calculated according to the price at the time of delivery. If the delivery of the object is delayed and the price has risen, the original price shall be adopted; while the price has dropped, the new price shall be adopted. In the event of delay in taking delivery of the object or late payment, if the price has risen, the new price shall be adopted; while the price has dropped, the original price shall be adopted.

Article 64 Where the parties agree that the obligor performs the obligations to a third party, and the obligor fails to perform the obligations to the third party or the performance does not meet the terms of the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for the breach of contract.

Article 65 Where the parties agree that a third party performs the obligations to the obligee, and the third party fails to perform the obligations or the performance does not meet the terms of the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for the breach of contract.

Article 66 If both parties have obligations toward each other and there is no order of priority in respect of the performance of obligation, the parties shall perform the obligations simultaneously. One party has the right reject the other party's request for performance if the other party's performance. One party has the right to reject the other party's corresponding request for

performance if the other party's performance does not meet the perms

of the contract.

Article 67 Where both parties have obligations towards each other

and there has been an order of priority in respect of the

performance, and the party which shall render its performance first

has not rendered the performance, the party which may render its

performance lately has the right to reject the other party's request

for performance. Where the party which shall render its performance

first violates the terms of a contract while fulfilling the

obligations, the party which may render its performance lately has

the right to reject the other party's corresponding request for

performance.

Article 68 One party, which shall render its performance first, may

suspend its performance, if it has conclusive evidence that the

other party is under any of the following circumstances:

(1) Its business conditions are seriously deteriorating;

(2) It moves away its property and takes out its capital secretly to

evade debt;

(3) It loses its commercial credibility;

(4) Other circumstances showing that it loses or is possible to lose

the capacity of credit.

Where a party suspends performance of a contract without conclusive

evidence, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

Article 69 One party to a contract which suspends its performance of

the contract in accordance with the provisions of Article 68 of this

Law, shall promptly inform the other party of such suspension. It

shall resume its performance of the contract when the other party

provides a sure guarantee. After the suspension of the performance,

if the other party does not reinstate its capacity of performance

and does not provide with a sure guarantee, the party suspending

performance of the contract may rescind the contract.

Article 70 If the obligee does not notify the obligor its

separation, merger or a change of its domicile so as to make it

difficult for the obligor to perform the obligations, the obligor

may suspend the performance of the contract or have the object

deposited.

Article 72 The obligee may reject the partial performance of the

contract by the obligor, except that the partial performance does

not damage the interests of the obligee.

Additional expenses caused to the obligee by partial performance

shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 73 If the obligor is indolent in exercising its due

creditor's right, thus damaging the interests of the obligee, the

obligee may request the people's court for subrogation in its own

name, except that the creditor's right exclusively belongs to the

obligor.

The subrogation shall be exercised within the scope of the

creditor's right of the obligee. The necessary expenses caused to

the obligee by exercising subrogation shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 74 If the obligor renounces its due creditor's right or

transfers its property gratis, thus damaging the interests of the

obligee, the obligee may request the people's courts to revoke the

obligor's act. If the obligor transfers its property at an obviously

unreasonable low price, thus damaging the interests of the obligee,

and the transferee knows such situation, the obligee may request the

people's court to revoke the obligor's act.

The right of revocation shall be exercised within the scope of the

creditor's right of the obligee. The necessary expenses caused to

the obligee by exercising the right of revocation shall be borne by

the obligor.

Article 75 The time limit for exercising the right of revocation

shall be one year, commencing from the day when the obligee is aware

or ought to be aware of the causes of revocation. If the right of

revocation has not been exercised within five years from the day

when the act of the obligor takes place, the right of revocation

shall be extinguished.

Article 76 After a contract becomes effective, the parties may not

reject to perform the obligations of the contract because of

modification of the title or name of the parties, or change of the

statutory representative, the responsible person or the executive

person of the parties.

Chapter 5 Modification and Assignment of Contracts

Article 77 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a

consensus through consultation.

If the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that a contract

shall be modified through the procedures of approval or

registration, such provisions shall be followed.

Article 78 If the contents of the modified contract agreed by the

parties are unclear, it shall be presumed that the contract is not

modified.

Article 79 The obligee may assign, wholly or in part, its rights

under the contract to a third party, except for the following

circumstances:

(1) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to

the character of the contract;

(2) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to

the agreement between the parties;

(3) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to

the provisions of the laws.

Article 80 An obligee assigning its rights shall notify the obligor.

Without notifying the obligor, the assignment shall not become

effective to the obligor.

The notice of assignment of rights may not be revoked, unless the

assignee agrees thereupon.

Article 81 If the obligee assigns is rights, the assignee shall

acquire the collateral rights relating to the principal right,

except that the collateral rights exclusively belong to the obligee.

Article 82 After the obligor receives the notice of assignment of

the creditor's right, it may claim its demur in respect of the

assignor to the assignee.

Article 83 When the obligor receives the notice of assignment of the

creditor's rights, and the obligor has due creditor's rights to the

assign or, and the creditor's rights of the obligor are due in

priority to the assigned creditor's rights or due at the same time,

the obligor may claim to offset each other to the assignee.

Article 84 If the obligor assigns its obligations, wholly or in

part, to a third party, it shall obtain consent from the obligee

first.

Article 85 If the obligor assigns its obligations to a third party,

the new obligor may claim the demur belonging to the original

obligor in respect of the obligee.

Article 86 If the obligor assigns its obligations to a third party,

the new obligor shall assume the collateral obligations relating to

the principal obligations, except that the obligations exclusively

belong to the original obligor.

Article 87 Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate

that the assignment of rights or transfer of obligations shall go

through approval or registration procedures, such provisions shall

be followed.

Article 88 One party to a contract may assign its rights and

obligations under the contract together to a third party with the

consent of the other party.

Article 89 If one party to a contract assigns its rights and

obligations under the contract together to a third party, the

provisions of Article 79, Article 81 to 83, and Article 85 to 87 of

this Law shall be applied.

Article 90 If one party to a contract is merged after the contract

has been concluded, the legal person or other organization

established after the merger shall exercise the contract rights and

perform the contract obligations. If one party is separated after

the contract has been concluded, the legal persons or other

organizations thus established after the separation shall exercise

the contract rights or assume the contract obligations jointly and

severally.

Chapter 6 Termination of the Rights and Obligations of Contracts

Article 91 The rights and obligations of contracts shall be

terminated under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The debt obligations have been performed in accordance with the

terms of the contract;

(2) The contract has been rescinded;

(3) The debts have been offset against each other;

(4) The obligor has deposited the object according to law;

(5) The debt obligations have been exempted by the obligee;

(6) The creditor's rights and debt obligations are assumed by the

same person; or

(7) Other circumstances for termination as stipulated by the laws or

agreed upon by the parties in the contract.

Article 92 When the rights and obligations of contracts are

terminated, the parties to a contract shall, abiding by the

principle of good faith, perform such obligations as making a

notice, providing assistance and maintaining confidentiality according to transaction practices.

Article 93 A contract may be rescinded if the parties to the contract reach a consensus through consultation.

The parties to a contract may agree upon the conditions to rescind the contract by one party. When such conditions are accompanished, the party entitled to rescind the contract may rescind it.

Article 94 The parties to a contract may rescind the contract under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The purpose of the contract is not able to be realized because of force majeure;

(2) One party to the contract expresses explicitly or indicates through its acts, before the expiry of the performance period, that it will not perform the principal debt obligations;

(3) One party to the contract delays in performing the principal debt obligations and fails, after being urged, to perform them within a reasonable time period;

(4) One party to the contract delays in performing the debt obligations or commits other acts in breach of the contract so that the purpose of the contract is not able to be realized; or

(5) Other circumstances as stipulated by law.

Article 95 Where the laws stipulate or the parties agree the time

limit to exercise the right to rescind the contract, and no party

exercises it when the time limit expires, the said right shall be

extinguished.

Where the law does not stipulate or the parties make no agreement

upon the time limit to exercise the right to rescind the contract,

and no party exercises it within a reasonable time period after

being urged, the said right shall be extinguished.

Article 96 One party to a contract shall make a notice to the other

party if it advances to rescind the contract according to the

provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 93 and Article 94 of the Law. The

contract shall be rescinded upon the arrival of the notice at the

other party. The party may, if the other party disagrees therewith,

request the people's court or an arbitration institution to confirm

the effectiveness of rescinding the contract.

Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that the

rescinding of a contract shall go through the formalities of

approval and registration, the provisions thereof shall be followed.

Article 97 If a contract has not yet been performed, its performance

shall be terminated after the rescission. If it has been performed,

a party to the contract may, in light of the performance and the

character of the contract, request that the original status be

restored or other remedial measures be taken.

Article 98 The termination of the rights and obligations of a

contract may not affect the force of the settlement and clearance

clauses in the contract.

Article 99 Where the parties to a contract have debts due mutually

and the category and character of the debts are the same, any party

may offset his debt against the other's one, except that the debts

may not be offset according to the provisions of the laws or to the

character of the contract.

Any party advancing to offset the debts shall make a notice to the

other party. Such notice shall be effective upon the arrival at the

other party. The offset may not be accompanied by any conditions or

time limit.

Article 100 Where the parties to a contract have debts due mutually

and the category and character of the debts are different, the debts

may be offset against each other if both parties have reached a

consensus through consultation.

Article 101 The obligor may deposit the object if the debt

obligations are difficult to be performed under any of the following

circumstances:

(1) The obligor refuses to accept them without justified reasons;

(2) The obligee is missing;

(3) The obligee is deceased and the heir is not yet determined, or

the obligee has lost his conduct capacity and the guardian is not

yet determined; or

(4) Other circumstances as stipulated by law.

If the object is not fit to be deposited or the deposit expenses are

excessively high, the obligor may, according to law, auction or sell

the object and deposit the money obtained therefrom.

Article 102 After the object is deposited, the obligor shall, except

that the obligee is missing, make a notice promptly to the obligee

or the obligee's heir or guardian.

Article 103 The risk of damage to and missing of the object after

being deposited shall be borne by the obligee. During the period of

depositing, the fruits generated by the object shall belong to the

obligee. The deposit expenses shall be borne by the obligee.

Article 104 The obligee may claim the deposited object at any time.

However, if the obligee is under a debt due to the obligor the

deposit authorities shall refuse him to claim the deposited object

at the request of the obligor, before the obligee has performed his

debt obligations or provides a guaranty.

The right to claim the deposited object by the obligee shall be

extinguished if it has not been exercised within 5 years as of the

date of deposit. The deposited object shall be owned by the State

with deduction of the deposit expenses.

Article 105 If the obligee exempts the obligor from the debt

obligations wholly or in part, the whole or part of the rights and

obligations of a contract shall be terminated.

Article 106 If the creditor's rights and debt obligation are assumed

by the same person, the rights and obligations of a contract shall

be terminated, except for those involving the interests of a third

party.

Chapter 7 Liability for Breach of Contracts

Article 107 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the

contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms

of the continue to perform its obligations, to take remedial

measures, or to compensate for losses.

Article 108 Where one party to a contract expresses explicitly or

indicates through its acts that it will not perform the contract,

the other party may demand it to bear the liability for the breach

of contract before the expiry of the performance period.

Article 109 If one party to a contract fails to pay the price or

remuneration, the other may request it to make the payment.

Article 110 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the

non-monetary debt or its performance of non-monetary debt fails to

satisfy the terms of the contract, the other party may request it to

perform it except under any of the following circumstances:

(1) It is unable to be performed in law or in fact;

(2) The object of the debt is unfit for compulsory performance or

the performance expenses are excessively high; or

(3) The creditor fails to request for the performance within a

reasonable time period.

Article 111 If the quality fails to satisfy the terms of the

contract, the breach of contract damages shall be borne according to

the terms of the contract agreed upon by the parties. If there is no

agreement in the contract on the liability for breach of contract or

such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance

with the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the damaged party

may, in light of the character of the object and the degree of

losses, reasonably choose to request the other party to bear the

liabilities for the breach of contract such as repairing,

substituting the goods, or reducing the price or remuneration.

Article 112 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the

contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms

of the contract, the party shall, after performing its obligations

or taking remedial measures, compensate for the losses, if the other

party suffers from other losses.

Article 113 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract and causes losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after performance of the contract, provided not exceeding the probable losses caused by the breach of contract which has been foreseen or ought to be foreseen when the party in breach concludes the contract.

The business operator who commits default activities in providing to the consumer any goods or service shall be liable for paying compensation for damages in accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests.

Article 114 The parties to a contract may agree that one party shall, when violating the contract, pay breach of contract damages of certain amount in light of the breach, or may agree upon the calculating method of compensation for losses resulting from the breach of contract.

If the agreed breach of contract damages are lower than the losses caused, any party may request the people's court or an arbitration institution to increase it; if it is excessively higher than the losses caused, any party may request the people's court or an

arbitration institution to make an appropriate reduction.

If the parties to a contract agree upon breach of contract damages

in respect to the delay in performance, the party in breach shall

perform the debt obligations after paying the breach of contract

damages.

Article 115 The parties to a contract may, according to the Guaranty

Law of the People's Republic of China, agree that one party pays a

deposit to the other party as the guaranty for the creditor's

rights. After the debt obligations are performed by the obligor, the

deposit shall be returned or offset against the price. If the party

that pays the deposit fails the perform the agreed debt obligations,

it shall have no right to reclaim the deposit. If the party that

receives the deposit fails to perform the agreed debt obligations,

it shall return twice the amount of the deposit.

Article 116 Where the parties to a contract agree on both breach of

contract damages and a deposit, when one party violates the

contract, the other party may choose to apply the breach of contract

damages clause or the deposit clause.

Article 117 In case that a contract is not able to be performed

because of force majeure, the liabilities shall be exempted in part

or wholly in light of the effects of force majeure, except as

otherwise stipulated by law. If the force majeure occurs after one

party has delayed in performance, the liability may not be exempted.

Force majeure as referred to in this Law means the objective

circumstances that are unforeseeable, unavoidable and

insurmountable.

Article 118 One party to a contact that is not able to perform the

contract because of force majeure shall make a notice to the other

party promptly so as to reduce the probable losses to the other

party and provide evidence within a reasonable time limit.

Article 119 After one party violates a contract, the other party

shall take proper measures to prevent from the enlargement of

losses; if the other party fails to take proper measures so that the

losses are enlarged, it may not claim any compensation as to the

enlarged losses.

The reasonable expenses paid by the party to prevent from the

enlargement of losses shall be borne by the party in breach.

Article 120 In case that both parties violate a contract, they shall

bear the liabilities respectively.

Article 121 One party that violates the contract because of a third

party shall be liable for the breach of contract to the other party.

The disputes between the said party and the third party shall be

settled according to law or their agreement.

Article 122 In case that the breach of contract by one party infringes upon the other party's personal or property rights, the aggrieved party shall be entitled to choose to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for breach of contract according to this Law, or to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for infringement according to other laws.

Chapter 8 Miscellaneous Provisions

Article 123 If there are provisions as otherwise stipulated in

respect to contracts in other laws, such provisions shall be

followed.

Article 124 Any contract which is not addressed explicitly in the

Specific Provisions of this Law or in other laws shall apply the

provisions of the General Provisions of this Law or in other laws

may be applied mutatis mutandis.

Article 125 With regard to disputes between the parties to a

contract arising from the understanding of any clause of the

contract, the true intention of such clause shall be determined

according to the terms and expressions used in the contract, the

contents of the relevant clauses of the contract, the purpose for

concluding the contract, the transaction practices and the principle

of good faith.

Where two or more languages are adopted in the text of a contract and it is agreed that both texts are equally authentic, it shall be presumed that the terms and expressions in various versions have the same meaning. In case that the terms and expressions in different versions are inconsistent, they shall be interpreted according to the purpose of the contract.

Article 126 The parties to a contract involving foreign interests may choose the law applicable to the settlement of their contract disputes, except as otherwise stipulated by law. If the parties to a contract involving foreign interests have not made a choice, the law of the country to which the contract is most closely connected shall be applied.

The contracts for Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, for Chinese-foreign contractual joint ventures and for Chinese-foreign cooperative exploration and development of natural resources to be performed within the territory of the People's Republic of China shall apply the laws of the People's Republic of China shall apply the laws of the People's Republic of China shall apply the laws of the People's Republic of China.

Article 127 The departments of administration for industry and commerce and other competent departments shall, within the scope of their respective competence and functions, be responsible for supervision over and dealing with illegal acts in taking advantage of contracts to endanger and harm the State interests and public interests. In case that a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated.

Article 128 The parties may settle their disputes relevant to the contract through conciliation or mediation.

The parties may, if unwilling to settle their disputes through conciliation or mediation or failing in the conciliation or mediation, apply to an arbitration institution for arbitration according to their arbitration agreement. The parties to a contract involving foreign interests may, according to their arbitration agreement, apply for arbitration to a Chinese arbitration institution or other arbitration institutions. If there is no arbitration agreement between the parties or the arbitration agreement is null and void, they may bring a lawsuit before the people's court. The parties shall perform the court judgments, arbitration awards or mediation documents with legal effectiveness.

In case any refusal in respect to the performance, the other party may request the people's court for execution.

Article 129 The time limit for action before the people's court or for arbitration before an arbitration institution regarding disputes relating to contracts for international sales of goods and contracts for technology import and export shall be four years, calculating from the date on which the party knows or ought to know the infringement on its rights. The time limits for action before the people's court or for arbitration before an arbitration institution regarding other contracts disputes shall be in accordance with the provisions of the relevant laws.

HOME

CHINA LEGAL BULLETIN'S ONLINE AMAZON.COM CHINA MINI- BOOKSTORE

0 Comments:

Post a Comment

Links to this post:

Create a Link

<< Home